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According to article L111-1 of the French intellectual property code, "the author of an intellectual work is granted, as its creator, a right of incorporeal property which is exclusive and enforceable against all. This right compromises intellectual and moral rights as well as a property right."
Like any creation or production, academic works falls under intellectual property. Therefore any intellectual or technical work may be protected by law and may not be used or circulated without its author's/authors' consent.
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- See French intellectual property code (Expanded version from 02/07/2013).
French rules in terms of copyright are fundamentally defined in Article L111-1 of the French intellectual property code.
It draws on the concepts of work, author, moral right and property right.
A work may be protected as soon as it is created. Unlike industrial property, neither submission nor any procedure is necessary to allow a work to be protected. In case of dispute, jurisprudence will be established solely on the criterion of originality, tenuous though it may seem.
The author, as owner of their work, enjoys two prerogatives: A moral right and a property right.
To cite this guide
Moro, Séverine. "Copyrights for literary and artistic works". In UEB (Université Européenne de Bretagne). Forma@Doct. Rennes, UEB, 2010 (last updated on 18/11/2013). Available on